|Instructors Manual Course Design|
The Challenge of Globalisation
for Southeast Asian Business
Course Design and Teaching Guide
Introduction: Challenges to Conventional Wisdom
Section 1: The Impact of Globalisation for Southeast Asian Business
Chapter 1: A Review of the Growth of
Chapter 2: Globalization Defined
Chapter 3: The Southeast Asian Economic
Miracle and International
4: The Growth of Regionalism
5: Global Finance and Southeast Asia
Section 2: The Challenge of Globalisation to Southeast Asian Business Systems
Chapter 6: Southeast Asian Business Systems
Chapter 7: The Financial Crisis as a ‘Critical Event’ for the Guanxi
Section 3: Global-Minded Business
Chapter 8: Redefining Competition
Chapter 9: A Global Management Approach
Chapter 10: A Global Marketing Approach
Chapter 11: Global Business Strategies for Southeast Asian Business
Chapter 12: Engaging the Future: Critical conversations for Southeast
proposes that a new and global logic of business management is emerging
across the world and explores its impact upon SE Asian business. It
challenges conventional wisdom about the growth of SE Asian economies and
the dynamics of business systems in the region and argues that all aspects
of business are currently adapting to the demands of a global paradigm.
The SE Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 is used as a case study to
demonstrate how globalisation is affecting business dynamics and bringing
about a metamorphosis in business logic, everywhere.
Since the time of the
financial crisis of 1997-98 there has been much criticism of SE Asian
business and financial systems with the view that they were of themselves
a fundamental cause of the crisis. SE Asian business systems were said to
lack transparency and the foundations of a modern financial system. Yet,
economic analysis provided little substantive explanation of the growth
and then decline of SE Asian business growth. Alternatively, from a
business perspective, the crisis is best explained as a clash of business
management paradigms. A clash, not between Western and Eastern business
paradigms, but between the logic of previous eras and the global
information era. Global Logic explores the external influences
affecting SE Asian business growth. It explores the business systems that
comprise the context in which global business has developed. And it
explores the impact of globalisation on SE Asia.
In applying Peter
Drucker’s (1995) thesis that management itself has become the decisive
factor in business success, the financial crisis is best understood as
essentially a crisis brought on by outmoded or inadequate management
styles. It is argued here that the change in the process of management
starts with the
realisation that the global era is not so
much concerned with the management of routine - as it was in the
industrial era - but with the management of innovation and change.
The thesis to this book is
that the dynamics of globalisation are changing the nature of business
across the world as a global interactive model of business logic takes
hold, and that this will have implications for the business systems in SE
Asia. The challenge for SE
Asia is to discover new styles and new approaches to business, which,
while still ‘Asian’, are also global in character.
and Teaching Guide
Global Logic has
been written for students of Globalisation or Asian Business.
It is an ideal text for MBA
students and senior undergraduate students.
As a secondary text, Global
Logic will serve students of Management, International Business,
Strategic Management, Marketing, Economic or Asian Studies.
This course will be most
effective with some preliminary study in business subjects, such as
marketing, management, strategic management, economics and particularly
Of course, it is possible
to teach this course on Globalisation, or SE Asian business, without this
grounding, but the Instructor will need to spend time in explanation of
basic concepts. Each Chapter begins with an historical overview of the
subject matter in hand, in order to introduce basic concepts and the
history of the subjects development, and then presents issues of
significance for the study of how business is being affected by
globalisation. In many instances, new and somewhat provocative ideas are
presented as a contribution to the development of the theory of business.
offers a systematic and comprehensive approach to the subject of SE Asian
business in the global information era. It is constructed in parallel with
the syllabus for international/global business courses taught in most
universities. This text- based course discusses major subjects considered
essential in the study of Global
Business, SE Asian Business, and International Business.
At the same time, it seeks to introduce some new ideas and
challenge conventional wisdoms.
In providing the material
for a full semester course, the objective is to encourage the student to
think beyond the descriptive approach of basic texts. Accordingly, it
incorporates theoretical research with historical overview and current
affairs to stimulate thoughtful discussion. The teaching approach is one
of hermeneutics – of seeking to interpret the meaning and discover the
significance of past and present theories and practice of business
management. Ultimately, the course seeks to provide practical means to
manage and develop business in the global era.
While the ideas of Peter
Drucker and Alvin Toffler are fundamental to this discussion on
globalisation, it is George Herbert Mead’s social interaction theory
which provides the basis to an appreciation of how globalisation is
changing the world’s paradigms of social and business interaction.
Thus, the course reviews
the theories on business and business management, using SE Asia to
illustrate the dynamic changes that are taking place, and discusses how
business management paradigms are undergoing change in the context of
fundamental business growth theories are addressed:
Liberalisation and Free Trade
The Flying Geese theory of Asian Growth
The Guanxi System of Business Management
The Marketing 4Ps Approach
Strategic Management Theory
International and TNC Growth Theories
And, some new concepts are
The Virtual Business
Change as a Constant
As a course in business
studies, the presentation of SE Asia growth is given from a business
management perspective rather than a purely economic perspective. It
suggests that an appreciation of the cultural-laden business systems of SE
Asia is necessary to understand the region’s dynamics. In proposing in
the Introduction that there are, infact, two business management models,
with their distinct business agendas, operating in SE Asia: a model of
global business growth in SE Asia, and a model of SE Asian business
management. The course seeks to explain how these business agendas operate
and then ventures to explore the issues of
the continued influence of globalisation upon SE Asian business systems.
It is argued that
Anglo-American industrial era models do not adequately depict SE Asian
business strategies and are not relevant to future SE Asian business
growth in the global marketplace. Accordingly, it is suggested that it is
misleading to teach and impose Anglo-American international business
approaches to students of SE Asian business. Teaching SE Asian business
requires a global approach because SE Asian business has developed in a
global context and is currently experience radical shifts in its business
management behaviour brought on by the demands of external global forces.
The same is true for practicing business in SE Asia. While providing a
resource for the theoretical background to business growth in SE Asia, Global
Logic also present some provocative ideas.
Chapter 6 reveals introduces the
concept of Foreign Indirect
Investment (FII) as a new designation for investment funds and
demonstrates the power of FII to affect economic stability.
Chapter 7 introduces George
Herbert Mead’s Social Interaction Theory as a criteria for examining
social and commercial stability and change. The Chapter presents a theory
of business system evolution by way of perceived-benefit adaptation.
Chapter 8 challenges the
supply-side approach to business competition arguing for a demand-side
approach whereby competition advantage is virtual reality deriving from
the value-perception of the consumer. Interactive focused see competitive
advantage arising out of quality encounters not production efficiencies.
Chapter 9 suggests that the global
information era renders the assumptions of business management of the
industrial era obsolete. A new Management Matrix is introduced to depict a
model of management by interaction.
Chapter 10 describes the stages of
marketing theory and suggests that, again, the supply-side approach to
marketing with its emphasis on product delivery and promotion is
misdirected. The idea of the marketing virus is introduced along with a
new Marketing Mix Model.
Chapter 11 introduces a
teleological approach to strategic planning and presents an
Action-Response Strategy model to depict strategic planning by way of
business environment interaction.
Chapter 12 presents a Matrix of
Engagement to demonstrate the multi-facited contexts of socio-commercial
life and suggests that the creation and management of knowledge comes
through encounters of meaningful engagement.
1. For Instructors, the book is supported by:
· A slide presentation which overviews the structure and reasoning to the book’s development – slides that can be used in class
· Tables and Figures of the book together and in a separate file, again, to aid in the construction of class presentations
· Power Point lectures for each Chapter
· A Video presentation spanning the book and providing a visual aid to instruction.
2. For Students, the book is supported through the Global-logic.net website by:
· Access to other articles written by the Author on associated topics
· Links to a number of key websites to review economic and business literature
· Direct access to the Publisher in order to purchase the book.
3. The material in the course is divided into three Sections:
The Impact of Globalisation for Southeast Asian Business
2: The Challenge of Globalisation to Southeast Asian Business
Section 3: Global-Minded Business
The purpose in presenting the material in this way is to allow for a systematic
approach for consideration of theoretical application to the changing and dynamic
global business environment.
4. The course can be built from the textbook. Each Chapter presents enough information to form a complete session. With 13 presentations – including the Introduction, and allowing for a revision week and exams there is sufficient, if not more than sufficient material to cover a course of study. If necessary, each Chapter contains enough material for several class presentations.
5. Each Chapter contains an historical and theoretic overview to the subject at hand. Each Chapter also contains discussion of relevant theories and events but, further, seeks to stimulate thinking by presenting new ideas. Accordingly, the material in the Chapters is compiled in such a way as to enable students to make tutorial presentations on each subject.
6. Chapters in the first Section of the book contain quite a number of Tables and Figures to allow students to consider the current-affairs aspect of the subject. Indeed, the whole ethos of the book is to have students consider economic and business theory, and history of economic and business events, in the context of business-today; that is, global business.
7. In this Instructors Manual, the Introduction and each of the Chapters is set out to aid in the drafting of class or lecture presentations. Each Chapter Review contains:
Overview of the Chapter
Study Review Questions
Essay and Discussion Questions
to Conventional Wisdom
Proposes that the world is undergoing a process of
globalisation that is changing social,
political and commercial interaction. The Introduction presents the
background to the growth of the global economy and its impact on SE Asia,
and proposes that there are two models of business growth and management
have been responsible for SE Asian development.
Section 1: The Impact
of Globalisation for Southeast Asian Business
A Review of the
Growth of Global Business
the changing profile of ‘International’ business with reference to the
historical development of the world economy, international agreements and
considers this change along side of the growth of transnational companies.
Defines globalisation by way of the growth of global information
infrastructure and the global information society. Discusses the history
and development of the global-information era and the advent of the
‘liberalised’ global economy. Reviews the shift of power to business
and the market, away from politics and national economies, and discusses
consequences, such as the changing nature of work.
The SE Asian
Economic Miracle and International Trade Theory
Discusses the Asian economic ‘miracle’ and why the miracle
fizzled against a background of detailed trade theory analysis. This
Chapter takes a detailed look at the financial crisis.
The Growth of Regionalism
Reviews the trend toward regional trade agreements and the history
and purpose of ASEAN and APEC. Looks at the shift of power away from
politics to business as business interrelationships come to define Asian
Global Finance and Southeast Asia
A detailed analysis of capital flows into SE Asia and the impact of
private capital by way of bank loans and foreign investments. Some
surprising and contemporary numbers are presented
Section 2: The
Challenge of Globalisation to Southeast Asian Business
Southeast Asian Business Systems
Discusses the issue of the influence of culture upon business
systems and the mosaic of cultures within SE Asia. The guanxi
business management system is designated the predominant system and
consequently an Overseas Chinese guanxi business management model
is developed – a highlight of the book and influential of Chapters
The Financial Crisis as a ‘Critical Event’ for the Guanxi
George Herbert Mead’s social interaction theory is used to
examine whether the financial crisis as a ‘critical event’ could
affect the Overseas Chinese business system. The criteria for change in a
socio-commercial system are examined with the proposal that possible
evolutionary change occurring through adaptation to perceived
Section 3: Global-Minded Business
Reviews the concept of competition as developed from the time of Adam Smith and how competitive advantage has however remained an exercise in ‘production efficiency’. It then looks at new approaches to competition in the ‘virtual’ world of business and presents competition as marketing and demand responsive.
A Global Management
Discusses the demand for a new global management approach and the
move to global business strategies. Presents a new Management Mix of 7
contingent factors – replacing old stereotypes - to suit the
contemporary business environment.
Reviews the theoretical background to the development of global
marketing. Presents a picture of the new SE Asian customer and presents a
case study of marketing in Vietnam.
Strategies for Southeast Asian Business
Looks at traditional approaches to strategic planning and the need
for a different approach to forming global strategies. The two models for
business operating in SE Asia – the global model of business growth, and
the ‘Asian’ business management model - are here revisited and
reviewed for their longer-term strategic significance.
12. Engaging the Future: Critical Conversational for
Southeast Asian Business
As a concluding chapter, the topic here is the management of change. The issues of the financial crisis are raised and the challenges it has presented for SE Asia’s future development. Of particular concern the development of business systems and entrepreneurial strategies that reflect both Asian business culture and the need to compete in a global marketplace.